Clin Case Rep Int | Volume 7, Issue 1 | Review Article | Open Access
Manisha K1, Geetika S1, Munish S2*, Sunil K1 and Ranjit K1*
1Department of Animal Science, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, India 2Department of Plant Science, Central University of Himachal Pradesh, India
*Correspondance to: Ranjit KumarFulltext PDF
Gallbladder cancer is reported very high in northern India. One-fifth of all gallbladder cancer cases are reported only from northern part of India. The cases are more prominent in females than males. There were many risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer, but the heavy metals are play crucial roles in induction of gallbladder cancer. Heavy metal may interfere with molecular mechanism and activate mTOR, MAPK, and transcription factor. Hyper activation of cysteine due to arsenic exposure interfere with the function of the mTOR signaling pathway and taurine pathway that causes activation of c-fos, c-myc, and ELK-1 leading to enhance cell division causing gallbladder cancer. Lead, Nickel, Zinc, and chromium activate cholic acid which causes formation of gallstones through activated taurine pathway leading to inflammatory gallbladder disease and formation of gall stones. Prolonged inflammation and stones formation in gall bladder may cause loss of contact inhibition in gall bladder cells leading to gall bladder cancer. The combined mechanism of heavy metals activates different pathway leading to gallbladder cancer through activating cell cycle and angiogenesis, it also inhibits tumor- suppressing genes. It was evident that gallbladder cancer is associated with high levels of heavy metal exposure. Differential mechanism associated with different heavy metal leads to gall bladder cancer.
mTOR; MAPK; Taurine; Gall stone; Inflammation
Manisha K, Geetika S, Munish S, Sunil K, Ranjit K. Heavy Metal Induced Molecular Alteration Leads to Gallbladder Cancer. Clin Case Rep Int. 2023; 7: 1539.